BEINECKE RARE BOOK AND MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY
GENERAL COLLECTION OF RARE BOOKS AND
MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE MANUSCRIPTS
Beinecke MS 425 France, s. XV^^3/4
Missal (in Fr.)
Restricted material. May not be seen without the permission of the appropriate curator.
1. ff. 1r, 2r Leaves with coats-of-arms (see below) and a full page miniature
(see below), both later additions on original leaves. ff. 1v, 2r ruled but
2. ff. 3r-5v Table of contents in French (no reference to folio number).
3. ff. 6r-148r Temporale in French with cues in Latin, from the first Sunday
in Advent through Holy Saturday; litany on ff. 145-146v includes Louis King
among the confessors.
4. ff. 148r-152v Common and special prefaces in French with cues in Latin;
canon of the mass in French, but omitting the consecration prayers as indicated
by the scribe, f. 151r, "Cy ne sont pas mises les parolles du sacrement du
corps" and "Cy ne sont pas mises les parolles du sacrement du sang."
5. ff. 153r-240r Temporale in French with cues in Latin, from Easter through
the 25th Sunday after Trinity; dedication of a church.
6. ff. 240r-320v Sanctorale in French with cues in Latin, from the vigil of
Andrew (29 November) through Catharine (25 November), including masses for
Maurice, Remigius and Dionysius.
7. ff. 320v-331v Common lessons of saints.
8. ff. 331v-359v Votive masses in French with cues in Latin of the Trinity,
Holy Spirit, Holy Cross, Virgin Mary (3 forms according to the liturgical year),
All Saints (2 forms), "pour quelconques neccessite et besoing," against sin, for
sinners, for one's friends, for one's family, for peace, for those traveling,
for the sick, to ask for rain, to ask for good weather, for prelates, for the
king, for oneself, to request the grace of the Holy Spirit, against temptations
of the flesh, for the dead (13 forms followed by the common lessons); marriage
service in French with rubrics, for liturgical directions, mass of the Trinity,
prayer upon entering the house, and benedictions of bread and wine, and of the
chamber and the bed; benediction of the fount; benediction of holy water; votive
masses of the Eucharist and of Louis King.
Parchment, ff. iv (contemporary parchment, iii and iv foliated 1, 2) + 357 +
iii (contemporary parchment), 365 x 260 (245 x 162) mm. Written in 2 columns
of 27 lines, ruled in pale red ink. Single vertical and horizontal bounding
lines full length and full across. Prickings (slashes) in upper and lower
Bound too tightly for accurate collation.
Written by a single scribe in formal gothic bookhand.
A richly decorated manuscript with an unusual and elaborate program of
miniatures by at least four artists: the Master of the Vienna Mamerot, Jean
Colombe, a hand close to the Masters of Morgan 96 and 366, and a fourth artist
whose hand has not yet been identified in other manuscripts. For manuscripts
either by or related to these hands and attributions for the individual
miniatures see Plummer, Last Flowering pp. 51-52 no. 68. Each large miniature
has a full border incorporating four marginal scenes (428 in all) with subjects
which either amplify or follow closely from the action of the miniature,
disposed with two rectangular scenes in the outer border and two roundels in
the lower border. For example, the border on f. 220v accompanying the miniature
of Christ and the epileptic demoniac incorporates scenes of Christ with the
father as his son collapses, the father kneeling in prayer, Christ blessing the
child, and Christ helping the boy to his feet. On f. 133v, with the miniature
of Christ foretelling the treachery of Judas, the marginal scenes depict Christ
reaching for a towel, tying the towel around his waist, washing Peter's feet,
and washing the feet of the other Apostles. The subsidiary miniatures, framed
in red, are surrounded by blue and gold acanthus, flowering vines in green,
blue and red, ivy in black pen with gold dots, large, naturalistic flowers, and
black hair-spray with gold dots. The borders are framed on the outer edges with
a red bounding line, on the inner edges with a red or gold bounding line.
Listed below are the subjects of the 107 large rectangular miniatures which
are derived from the Gospel reading for that day or from incidents in the
Temporale: f. 6r Entry into Jerusalem; f. 7v Christ points out signs of
sun and moon to the Apostles; f. 9r John the Evangelist sends two of his
disciples to greet Christ; f. 16v St. John the Baptist preaching; f. 22r
Nativity; f. 25r Circumcision; f. 27r Adoration of the Magi; f. 31r Miracle of
the Wine at Cana; f. 32v Christ heals the leper; f. 35v Christ narrates the
parable of the vineyard; f. 38r Christ narrates the parable of the sower before
a large crowd; f. 40v Christ and the Apostles enter Jerusalem; f. 48r Satan
tempts Christ to turn stones into loaves; f. 51v Christ and the Apostles
confronted by the residents of Jerusalem; f. 56r Christ and four Apostles go up
to Jerusalem; f. 58r Transfiguration; f. 61v Christ and Apostles with the
Canaanite woman; f. 66r Christ, Apostles and Mary go up to Jerusalem; f. 67v
Beating of Lazarus; f. 71r Departure of the prodigal son; f. 74r Christ and the
dumb man; f. 76r Christ at Nazareth; f. 81r Christ cures the mother-in-law of
Simon; f. 82v Christ and the Samaritan woman at the well; f. 85r Christ
preaching in the temple; f. 88v Christ and the Apostles by the sea of Galilee;
f. 93v Christ heals the blind man; f. 96v Christ watching the funeral procession
at Nain; f. 98v Raising of Lazarus; f. 102v Christ preaching in the temple;
f. 108v The annointing in the house of Simon the Pharisee [?]; f. 113r The
annointing at Bethany (according to Matthew); f. 119v The annointing at Bethany
(according to John); f. 122r Last Supper; f. 127r Judas paid; f. 133v Christ
foretells the treachery of Judas; f. 135v Crucifixion; f. 153r Resurrection;
f. 154v Road to Emmaus; f. 156v Christ appearing to Apostles; f. 158v Peter
walking on water; f. 160v Mary at tomb; f. 162v Christ appearing to the twelve
Apostles; f. 164r Mary Magdalen at tomb; f. 165v Doubting Thomas; f. 175r
Ascension; f. 183r Pentecost; f. 189v Christ among the Pharisees; f. 191r
Christ enters the home of Simon; f. 195r Gnadenstuhl Trinity surrounded by
angels; f. 196v Lazarus outside the door of the rich man; f. 202r Christ by the
lake of Gennesaret; f. 205r Christ speaks to the Apostles prior to the second
miracle of the loaves; f. 209r Christ laments as he approaches Jerusalem; f. 212r
Christ heals the deaf man; f. 215r Christ heals two of the ten lepers; f. 218r
Christ revives the son of the widow of Nain; f. 220v Christ meets the father of
the epileptic demoniac; f. 223r Osee preaching; f. 229v Christ cures the
paralitic; f. 232r Christ heals the son of the nobleman; f. 236r Christ heals
the daughter of the official; f. 237r Christ speaks with Philip prior to miracle
of loaves; f. 238v Christ speaking to Zacchaeus, in tree.
Sanctorale: f. 242r Martyrdom of St. Andrew; f. 244v Thomas sees wounds
of Christ; f. 245v Martyrdom of St. Stephen; f. 247r St. John with the poisoned
chalice; f. 248v Herod orders the massacre of the Innocents; f. 253v Martyrdom
of St. Sebastian; f. 255r Christ meeting horsemen [?]; f. 256r Conversion of
St. Paul; f. 258v Presentation; f. 261r St. Peter preaching; f. 262v Selection
of Matthias; f. 264v Annunciation; f. 268v Philip ordered to sacrifice; f. 270r
Heraclius with soldiers; f. 272r St. John the Evangelist boiled; f. 273r St.
Barnabas casting down gold; f. 276r Circumcision of St. John the Baptist; f.
279v St. Peter and St. Paul; f. 284r St. Margaret brought before the prefect;
f. 285r Noli me tangere; f. 287r St. James sentenced; f. 288r Martyrdom of St.
James; St. Peter imprisoned; f. 291r Martyrdom of St. Lawrence; f. 293v
Dormition; f. 295r St. Bartholomew enters temple; f. 297r Salome with head of
St. John; f. 298v Joachim and Anna present offerings at altar of temple; f. 300v
Heraclius approaches Jerusalem with cross; f. 303r Two magicians with dragons;
f. 304r St. Maurice before Maximian; f. 305v St. Michael and dragon; f. 308r
Stigmatization of St. Francis; f. 309r Martyrdom of St. Dionysius; f. 310r St.
Luke; f. 312r Two groups of soldiers; f. 314v Apostles, Popes, Martyrs and
Virgins; f. 316r Funeral ceremony; f. 317v St. Martin and beggar; f. 319v St.
Catharine in her study.
ommon of Saints: f. 320v St. Paul writing; Ephesians reading; f. 322v
Martyrs; f. 326v Two confessors reading; f. 330r Martyrdom of St. Catharine.
Additions of s. xvii [?] on front flyleaves, originally blank. f. 1r:
Full page frontispiece miniature, a throne room, the walls draped with a
tapestry, blue with fleur-de-lis and the letter K in gold roundels; running
around the walls, a bench covered with a green tapestry; in front a gothic
canopy supported by three columns from which hang coats-of-arms, each with an
attached inscribed scroll, the top arms supported by angels. Center column:
France moderne and the arms of Charles VI; left column; arms of six duchies;
right column: arms of six archbishoprics. f. 2r: Miniature, a monstrance in
an elaborate gothic architectural niche, inscribed at bottom, "L'Office de la
Messe." Full border of blue and gold acanthus with green leaves and arms of
Henry V of England; square panels at corners with jewels set in acanthus
quatrefoil medallions against mauve grounds, bounded in red and gold. Gold
acanthus in upper margin from which hangs, in left and right margins, strings of
4- and 2-line initials throughout, shaded pink or blue with gold foliate
decoration against blue or pink grounds with pink or blue curling leaves,
heightened in gold. 1-line initials, gold, against pink or blue grounds with
gold filigree. On ff. 6r-13v the 4- and 2-line initials, as well as
line-fillers in the same manner, are painted over blue or red initials with red
or blue penwork and line fillers in red, blue and gold. The overpainting of
this archaizing decoration reflects a change in decorative scheme rather than
an interval of three-quarters of a century between the writing and the
illumination of the manuscript (See Exhibition Catalogue, pp. 252-54, no.
74). Rubrics and some underlining in red throughout.
Binding: s. xix. Quarter bound in brown goatskin. Blue/green cloth sides
with silver fastenings and fittings. On fastenings small roundels with
portraits of the evangelists; on clasp a roundel with Annunciation.
Numerous Turk's head place-marks on
fore edge. Earlier covers, s. xvii, mounted inside boards.
Produced probably in Bourges, ca. 1470-75, judging from the illumination;
formerly known as the "Fouquet Missal", based on the mistaken attribution of
the illumination to Fouquet. (For discussion and refutation of the theory
that the manuscript was begun ca. 1400, but not completed until ca. 1470, see
Exhibition Catalogue, pp. 252-53.) Arms of Charles VI of France and Henry V
of England were added to ff. 1r and 2r (originally blank), s. xvii or later;
no other evidence of ownership by royal families. The sale catalogue of
Ambroise Firmin-Didot (see reference below) lists a series of early owners, but
without supporting evidence: Charles VI of France (1348-1422); his daughter
Catherine, wife of Henry V of England; Henry VI, Henry VII, and Henry VIII of
England, taken to Antwerp by one Gilles and sold in 1545 to the
Premonstratensian monastery of Tongerloo, where it remained until 1869 (a
letter in the library files from the archivist of Tongerloo, dated 1967, states
that the abbey has no inventory mentioning this volume, but no longer has
records of manuscripts held before the French Revolution); supposedly acquired
from the abbey by the dealer A. Bachelin, who then sold it to A. Firmin-Didot
(booklabel; Catalogue illustre des livres precieux manuscrits et
imprimes de la bibliotheque de M. Ambroise Firmin-Didot [Paris, 1879]
v. 2, pp. 43-49, no. 17). Purchased at the Firmin-Didot sale by the bookseller
Fontaine, who sold it to Countess Mniszeck, stepdaughter of Honore de Balzac.
Unidentified white rectangular label, with blue border and "6595", appears on
f. i recto. Passed through hands of the bookseller Thibaudeau. Library of
Robert Hoe ([C. Shipman], A Catalogue of the Manuscripts Forming a Portion of
the Library of Robert Hoe [New York, 1909] pp. 133-38); at Part I of Hoe's
sale (Anderson's, 1 May 1911, no. 2155, pl. of f. 135v), was bought by Dodd and
Livingston. Collection of Baron Edmond Rothschild (MS 13). Owned by Gabriel
Wells (bookseller) for 20 years. Acquired from H. P. Kraus in 1968 by Edwin J.
Beinecke for the Beinecke Library.
secundo folio: [table, f. 4] La vielle
[text, f. 7] acomplir
Bibliography: Exhibition Catalogue, pp. 252-54, no. 74, pl. 26 (f. 135v).
L. M. J. Delaisse, "A Liturgical Problem at the End of the Middle Ages:
The 'Missale Gallicum'," Litterae Textuales, Essays, Presented to G. I.
Lieftinck 4 (1976) pp. 16-27, fig. 3.
F. Avril, "Manuscrits a peintures d'origine francaise a la Bibliotheque
Nationale de Vienne," Bulletin Monumental 134 (1976) p. 331.
S. Hindman and J. D. Farquhar, Pen to Press: Illustrated Manuscripts
and Printed Books in the First Century of Printing ([n. p.], 1977) p. 70.
Barbara A. Shailor