BEINECKE RARE BOOK AND MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY
GENERAL COLLECTION OF RARE BOOKS AND
MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE MANUSCRIPTS
Marston MS 213 Austria, s. XIII 3/4-4/4
I. 1. f. 1r Front pastedown numbered as f. 1; f. 2r noted sequence to Catharine of
Alexandria, added in a different hand; three short prayers to Dorothea,
added in a different hand.
2. ff. 2v-8r Calendar in red and black, with some liturgical, computistic
and zodiacal information supplied in the main hand in red ink (including the
red "d" to indicate the dies mali); among the feasts are: Severinus,
apostle of Noricum (5 January), Valentinus bishop (7 January), Erhard bishop
Antony abbot (17 January, added), Praejectus (25 January), "hainricus
dictus heliz[?]mannus" (6 February, added, then erased), "Dyabolus
(16 February), "Hic Adam peccavit" (18 February), 79 Martyrs (21 February),
Cunigundis (3 March), "Primus dies seculi" (18 March), Benedict (21 March),
"Passio domini" (25 March), Castulus (26 March), "Resurrectio domini" (27
March), Rupert bishop (27 March), "Diluuium factum est" (3 April), Ezechiel
prophet (10 April), "Rupti sunt fontes aquarum" (11 April), Senesius
(20 April), "[Dedicacio?] parochialis [ecclesie?] [?]" (28 April; added, then
erased), Jeremiah prophet (29 April), "Dedicacio altaris sancti Iohannis in
medio ecclesie" (29 April, added), Florian (4 May, in red), "Ascensio domini"
(5 May), "Dedicacio cappelle in Singulis diebus dantur Sexcenti dies
Criminalium et mille. dc. dies venialium que indulgentia durat annuatim octo
dies" (6 May, added), octave of Florian (11 May), Gangulph (13 May), "Adventus
spiritus sancti" (15 May), "Erasmi episcopi et Martyris hic habetur in
Cappella Indulgentia superius adnotata. videlicet. dc. dies Criminalium et mille
dc venialium et datur octo dies" (2 June, added), "Dedicacio Cappelle Sancti
Laurencii super danubium site habetur singulis annis in sabbato proximo ante
Dominicam in albis. et Sequenti die scilicet. Quasimodo geniti erit dedicacio
super Carnarium" (moveable feasts falling on the first Saturday and Sunday after
Easter, added in outer margin), Nativity of John the Baptist (24 June), "Nota
indulgentia supra notata habetur etiam in die isto scilicet Iohannis baptiste
in cappella et durat similiter octo dies (24 June, added), Erentrude (30 June),
Ulric bishop (4 July), Willibald (7 July), Kilian and companions (8 July),
Translation of Nicolas (9 July), Translation of Benedict (11 July), Margaret
(12 July, in red), Separation of the Apostles (15 July), Translation of
Dorothea (18 July, added), Tertullinus (31 July), Maccabean Martyrs (1 August),
Invention of Stephen (3 August, in red), Translation of Valentinus (4 August),
Afra (7 August, in red), Laurence (10 August, in red), Arnulph bishop (16
August), Magnus (19 August), Decollation of John the Baptist (29 August),
Magnus abbot (6 September), Corbinian (8 September), Translation of
Cunigundis (9 September), Emmeram (22 September), Translation of Rupert
(24 September), Conception of John the Baptist (24 September), Wenceslas
(28 September), Michael archangel (29 September, in red), Francis (4 October),
Translation of Wolfgang (7 October), Abraham patriarch (9 October), Justus,
Artemius and Honesta (11 October), Maximilian (12 October), Coloman
(13 October), Martha widow (17 October), Wolfgang (31 October), Caesarius
martyr (1 November), Othmar (16 November), Elisabeth of Thuringia (19
November), Virgilius bishop (27 November), Immaculate Conception (8
December, in red), Odilia (13 December), Zosimas monk (14 December), Ananiah,
Azariah and Mishael (16 December), Wunibald (18 December), David King
(29 December); added in the lower margin of ff. 7v-8r (for 16 October?),
collect, secret and postcommunion for two masses of Hedwig.
3. f. 8v Ad communionem corporis christi. Oratio beati
Summe sacerdos et uere pontifex ihesu christe qui te obtulisti deo patri
hostiam immaculatam in ara crucis pro nobis peccatoribus...;
Item de eodem oratio brevis. Omnipotens et misericors deus. ecce accedo
ad sacramentum corporis et sanguinis domini nostri ihesu christi vnigeniti
filij tui licet peccator....
II. 4. ff. 9r-31v Sung parts of masses, noted in neumes, of the temporale,
from the first Sunday in Advent through Trinity Sunday, followed by the mass
for the dedication of a church.
5. ff. 31v-39v Sung parts of masses, noted in neumes, of the sanctorale, from
Sylvester (31 December) through Lucy (13 December), including masses of
Florian, Laurence (with vigil and octave), Nicomedis, Michael archangel;
marginal additions regarding masses of Kilian, Margaret, Assumption of the
Virgin, Decollation of John the Baptist.
6. ff. 39v-43v Sung parts of masses, noted in neumes, of the temporale, from
the first through the 23rd Sunday after Pentecost.
7. ff. 43v-44v Sung parts of masses, noted in neumes, of the common of saints.
8. ff. 44v-45r Three settings of the Kyrie and the Gloria, added material
in lower margin of f. 45r: "Alleluia. Prophete sancti predicauerunt christum
nasciturum de virgine matre maria. Mittit ad virginem non [natum?] quemvis angelum
sed fortitudinem suam archangelum amator hominis. Mortem expediat pro nobis
nuncium...Qui nobis tribuat peccati veniam, reatus diluat, et donet [?]
pateram in arce syderum. Amen.
9. ff. 45v-57v Sequences, some noted with neumes, for major feasts from the
first mass of Christmas through Trinity Sunday, including sequences of
John the Baptist, Mary Magdalen, Afra, Laurence, Michael
archangel, the dedication of a church, Separation of the Apostles; sequences
for the common of saints, for the Virgin (7 sequences); sequences for the feast
of a martyr added in the lower margins of ff. 54v-55r, and for the Annunciation
in the upper margin of f. 55v; on f. 57v, added prayer for communion:
"[S]uscipe sancta trinitas et ob memoriam passionis resurrectionis ascensionis
domini nostri ihesu christi et in commemoracione beate Marie semper virginis.
beati Iohannis baptiste...hanc immaculatam hostiam quam ego indignus famulus
tuus offero tibi....
III. 10. ff. 58r-60r Prefaces of the mass.
11. ff. 60r-63v Canon of the mass; on f. 63v, added prayers for communion:
Domine sancte pater omnipotens sempiterne deus. da mihi hoc corpus et
sanguinem filii tui domini nostri ihesu christi. ita sumere. ut per hoc
mereamur remisionem...; Domine ihesu christe filii dei viui. qui ex voluntate
patris cooperante spiritu sancto per mortem propriam mundum viuificasti...;
Domine non sum dignus. ut intres sub tectum meum...; Percepcio corporis et
sanguinis domini nostri ihesu christi quam ego indignus et miserrimus peccator
summere [sic] presumo [?]...; Corpus domini nostri ihesu christi. quod accepi et
calix quem potaui...; added by a different hand from above in the lower margin
of f. 63v, prayer for peace: Domine ihesu christe qui dixisti apostolis tuis
pacem meam do vobis pacem meam....
12. f. 64r-v Blessing of the candle on Holy Saturday, with neumes; collect,
secret and postcommunion added in a different hand for masses of All Saints
during Eastertide (on otherwise blank leaf at the end of the quire).
IV. 13. ff. 65r-93r Spoken parts of masses (usually collect, secret and
postcommunion only, but more extensive for the greater feasts,
especially during Eastertide) of the temporale from the first Sunday in
Advent through the 24th Sunday after Pentecost.
14. ff. 93r-118r Spoken parts of masses (usually collect, secret and
postcommunion only) of two votive masses of the Virgin, and of the sanctorale,
from Thomas of Canterbury (29 December) through Thomas the Apostle (21
December), including masses of Benedict, Florian, John the Baptist (with major
initial and four postcommunion prayers), Ulric, Kilian, Translation
of Benedict, Margaret, Separation of the Apostles, Mary Magdalen, Anne
(added; not present in calendar), Maccabean Martyrs, Sixtus (with a blessing of
the grapes between the secret and the postcommunion), vigil of Laurence,
Laurence (two masses, "in die sancto mane" and "ad publicam"), octave of
Laurence, Decollation of John the Baptist, Nicomedes, Michael archangel,
Denis (9 October), Coloman (16 October; with common set of prayers and
rubric corrected to his name over an erasure); Francis (4 October; in original
hand, and with proper collect), Catharine of Alexandria.
15. ff. 118r-120v Spoken parts of masses (collect, secret and postcommunion
only) of the common of saints; additions by various hands in the margins for
including masses of Bridget (1 February; of Kildare or of Niedermuenster),
Perpetua and Felicitas, Rupert, Ambrose, Anne (not present in calendar),
Oswald, Wenceslas, Coloman, Barbara, Immaculate Conception (De
Concepcione, "Deus ineffabilis..."; Secretum, "Salutiferus pater
omnipotens..."; Complendum, Celestis alimonie vegetati libamine...").
16. ff. 121r-124r Votive masses in full (but lections sometimes by cue only)
for the week: Trinity, Wisdom, Holy Spirit, Angels, Charity, Holy Cross,
Virgin (with changed office according to the liturgical year).
17. ff. 124r-141r Votive masses, some with full text (but lections often by
cue only): pro salute viuorum, pro peccatis, de patrono ("sancti N.
martyris"), de sanctis, oratio generalis, in veneratione sanctorum (those
whose relics are in the church), ad postulanda suffragia sanctorum, pro
universis ordinibus, pro papa, omni gradu ecclesie, pro Imperatore, pro se
ipso (2 forms), pro pace, pro Tribulatione, Contra persecutores, pro
lacrimis postulandis, ad postulandam humilitatem, pro recta petitione et
vita bona, de sancto spiritu, ad repellendas malas cogitaciones, Contra
temptaciones carnis, pro amico, pro Inimicis, pro Confitente peccata, pro
peccatis (2 forms), pro Tribulatione, pro elemosinas facientibus, pro iter
agentibus, pro salute viuorum, ad postulandam pluviam, ad postulandam
Serenitatem, ad repellendis [sic] tempestates, pro Infirmis, pro Infirmo
amico, pro Infirmo (against fevers, through the intercession of St.
Sigismund), pro quacumque tribulatione, pro pestilentia animalium, pro
tribulatione, [Oratio] Generalis (2 forms); added in several hand on
f. 134r-v, in space originally left blank, a missa generalis, pro quacumque
tribulacione, pro omnibus fidelibus defunctis; ff. 135r-141r, votive masses
for the dead (23 forms); f. 141r, added in another hand, Nicene Creed.
18. ff. 141v-148v Collect, secret and postcommunion for masses of the
sanctorale, including All Saints before Advent, Praejectus (25 January),
Walpurgis, Cunigundis, Nicomedes, Antony of Padua, Achatius and the 10,000
Soldiers, Mary Magdalen, Pantaleon, Translation of Valentinus bishop of
Passau, Oswald, Dominic, Bernard of Clairvaux, Corbinian, Emmeram,
Leodegar, Gereon, Maximilian, 11,000 Virgins, Othmar, Elisabeth of Thuringia,
Immaculate Conception, Odilia (13 December); a general mass (with collect,
secret and postcommunion only); a full mass, partially noted, of Corpus
Christi; a sequence for Sundays after Easter, a sequence of the Holy Cross,
and, added in another hand on the otherwise blank final verso of the quire
(f. 148v), a sequence for the mass of the Virgin.
19. ff. 149r-248v Lections for masses of the temporale, from the first
Sunday in Advent through the 24th Sunday after Pentecost, with readings
for the 25th Sunday added in a different color ink; the text of the Passion
Gospels (ff. 192r-196v, 198r-201v, 202v-206r, 207v-210r) marked with
suprascript letters "t" (for Christ's part), "a" (for other speakers),
"c" (or rarely "s," for the third person narrator); a red cross in the text
marks the return to Gospel tone on ff. 201v, 206r, 209v; occasional neumes
on Christ's speaking parts; on f. 150v, added readings for the Visitation.
20. ff. 249r-266r Lections for masses of the sanctorale, from Sylvester
(31 December) through Andrew (30 November), including the feasts of the
Nativity of John the Baptist, Mary Magdalen, Laurence, Decollation of John
the Baptist, Michael archangel; among the material added in the margins are
readings for the feast of the Visitation.
21. ff. 266r-276v Lections (sometimes by cue only) for masses of the common
of saints, missing one leaf after f. 268r, and ending defectively at the
first reading for virgins (Ecclesiasticus 51.1-9); on ff. 275r-276r, between
the lections for martyrs and those for evangelists, are three readings for the
feast of Benedict: Benedicti abbatis Lectio Libri Sapiencie. Rigabo hortum
meum plantationum. et inebriabo partus mei fructum...concordia fratrum. et
amor proximorum (Ecclesiasticus 24.42-25.2); Lectio libri Sapiencie. Beatus
homo qui inuenit sapienciam. et qui affluit prudencia...et nubes rore
concrescunt (Prov. 3.13-20), Mattheum. In illo tempore. Dixit ihesus
discipulis suis. Vos estis sal terre...ut uideant uestra bona opera.
et glorificent patrem uestrum qui in celis est (Mat. 5.13-16).
Composed of four parts, all on thick parchment of good quality, ff. 276 (f.
1, contemporary [?] parchment flyleaf partially pasted to front board) + i
(contemporary [?] parchment flyleaf pasted to back board), 322 x 230 mm.
Part I: ff. 2-8, written space: 206 x 178 mm. Ruled in multiple columns for
calendar, in ink; prominent prickings in upper, lower and outer margins.
Consists of a single gathering of seven leaves; structure uncertain due to
repairs, though 4 and 5 are conjugate. Text of calendar written in gothic
bookhand by a single scribe; many later additions in several hands.
monograms, in red, embellished with knobs.
Part II: ff. 9-56 (early foliation in Roman numerals, i-xxxvii, for ff.
9-45, in center of upper margin), written space: 230 x 167 mm. 27 long
lines. Double vertical bounding lines and widely spaced double horizontal
bounding lines, all full across; ruled in ink; remains of prickings in
upper, lower and outer margins. II-VII 8. Quires numbered in Roman
numerals in center of lower margin, recto; numbering sequence runs from
beginning to end of codex. Written in gothic bookhand, with additions in
several different hands in less formal styles of writing. Musical notation
consists of Austrian adiastematic neumes in the same ink as the text. Eleven
large initials, 12- to 6-line, drawn in red and/or brown ink against
geometric grounds of blue and lime-green washes.
The initials are constructed of dragons and other fantastic animals, or of
stylized foliage inhabited by biting beasts and birds. Similar initials can
be found in manuscripts from Vorau dated 1270-90 (see P. Buberl,
Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der illuminierten Handschriften in
vol. IV.1, pp. 188-89, fig. 185, and pp. 192-93, figs. 189-191). Plain
initials in blue, red or lime-green, some with blue and/or red penwork
designs, others with knobs. Major headings in majuscules with letters
alternating red, black, and sometimes lime green; other headings in red.
Instructions to rubricator perpendicular to text. Elegant repairs to
parchment sewn with blue and chartreuse thread (e.g., f. 27).
Part III: ff. 57-64, written space for ff. 58-63, 220 x 150 mm. 19 long
lines. Double vertical bounding lines in hard point [?]. Double rulings for
each line of text, ruled faintly in lead. Remains of prickings in upper, lower,
and outer margins. A single gathering of 8 leaves (1 and 8, ff. 57 and 64,
appear to have been wrapped around an original quire of six leaves; these two
leaves have formats similar to Parts II and IV). Written in large
liturgical gothic bookhand. The decoration of the Canon of the Mass
consists of a 3/4-page miniature of the crucifixion, f. 60r, framed
with a narrow border of olive green, red and blue with white filigree.
Christ is shown hanging from a Y-shaped Astkreuz flanked by Mary
and St. John, aginst gold ground. The gold ground is largely rubbed
and the figures are partly restored (lower part of St. John's
robe has been reworked, and flaked paint on the cross and Christ's
loin cloth replaced). The depiction is the earliest in a series of
Crucifixion miniatures in St. Florian manuscripts with the cross symbolically
treated as the Tree of Life (see Exhibition Catalogue, pp. 193-95, no. 22,
fig. 8). Stylistically and iconographically the miniature can be located
between the corresponding depictions in St. Florian, Stiftbibliothek, cod. III.
209 and cod. XI. 394 (see G. Schmidt, Die Malerschule von St. Florian:
Beitraege zur sueddeutschen Malerei zur Ende des 13. und im 14.
[Linz, 1962], pp. 82-84, no. 39). Marginal illustration of what appears to be
a kneeling Augustinian canon dressed in white and red robes, adjoining the
Te igitur (f. 60v). Three illuminated initials, ff. 58r, 59v, 60v, for
the Canon of the Mass, 7- to 5-line, pale mauve with stylized scrolls and
green foliage against gold ground edged in blue with white filigree. Similar
initials appear in St. Florian, Stiftbibliothek cod. III. 209 (cf. Schmidt,
p. 165, figs, 81, 84-85). Vere dignum initials, 3-line, alternate in red and
blue with penwork in either blue or red. Most of the leaves of this section
have been repaired.
Part IV: ff. 65-276 (early foliation, Roman numerals, in upper margin:
i-clxiij for ff. 93-253 only), written space 235 x 150 mm. 26 long lines
(exceptions include: ff. 141v-148v, 215 x 150 mm., 25 lines; ff. 149r-276v,
25 or 26 lines). Double vertical and single or double upper vertical
bounding lines ruled in pen, all full across. Prickings in upper, lower
and outer margins. IX-XVIII 8, XIX 4 (ff. 145-148, unnumbered),
XX 6 (old foliation begins with this quire), XXI-XXVI 8, XXVII 10,
XXVIII-XXXIV 8, XXXV 7 [?], XXXVI 1 (a single leaf signed with quire
signature XXXV). Remains of old series of quire signatures (XIV and XV on
ff. 260v, 261r); new series of quire signatures, also Roman numerals but on
recto, run from beginning to end of codex (cf. Part II above).
Written in gothic bookhand; several layers of marginalia added in less
formal hands. Pen-and-ink initials, 7- to 4-line, of a similar design as
in Part II, but lacking the vitality; drawn in brown and/or red ink with
stylized foliage and palmettes sometimes touched with blue or red against
blue, red and/or lime-green ground. Smaller initials, 4-line, red, blue
or green with red and/or green penwork design. Plain initials in red.
Headings in red. Instructions for rubricator perpendicular to text.
Binding: England, s. xix. Quarter bound in brown calf over wooden board,
with decoration cut in (cisele). Metal fittings at the head and tail of the leather and
Written in Austria at the end of the third quarter or the beginning of the
fourth quarter of the 13th century, probably ca. 1270-80. Although all
four parts may be roughly contemporary in execution, they apparently were not
assembled together as a book for the mass until the 15th century, at which point the
manuscript was annotated and cross-referenced from beginning to end; it is
possible that only the lectionary and sacramentary in Part IV were originally
intended to be used together. The composite nature of the codex is suggested
by the following codicological details: the sequence of the early foliation
that was written in three different hands (ff. 9r-45r = i-xxxvii; ff.
93r-249r = i-clix; ff. 250r-253r = clx-clxiii); the presence of two distinct
sequences of quire marks, one of which was added when the codex assumed its
present configuration in the 15th century; the juxtaposition of somewhat
different styles of script and decoration found in the four parts. The
entire manuscript has been attributed in the past to the house of Augustinian
canons of St. Florian on the basis of the calendar, the physical format
of the text, and the iconography of the Crucifixion (see Exhibition
pp. 193-94, no. 22). This attribution may, however, be problematic: textually,
some Augustinian features (such as the feast of Augustine's mother, Monica) are
absent, whereas certain Benedictine feasts are included; the script and
initials in the Gradual (Part II) seem antiquated and do not fit well within
the production of the St. Florian scriptorium (cf. Schmidt, p. 165), but similar
initials can be found in manuscripts from neighboring Vorau dated ca. 1270-90;
given the variety and style of scripts and decoration present in the manuscript,
it is possible that the parts were not all produced in a single place.
In conclusion, the evidence suggests that the four parts of the codex, either
individually or collectively, were not necessarily executed at St. Florian nor
were they originally intended to be used together in a single volume. Further
research is required before a definite attribution can be made. A 14th-century
addition to the calendar (f. 5r) may refer to the chapel of St. Lawrence at
Lorch. Two later inscriptions in the upper margin, f. 2r, now crossed out:
"MS. 366." and "36." Purchased from H. P. Kraus (Cat. 88, no. 11) in 1959
by Thomas E. Marston (bookplate).
secundo folio: [Part I, f. 3:] KL Februarius
[Part II, f. 10:] ambulant
[Part III, f. 59:] Uere dignum
[Part IV, f. 66:] Indignos
Bibliography: Faye and Bond, p. 88, no. 213.
Exhibition Catalogue, pp. 193-94, no. 22, pl. 8 of f. 60r (with additional
The Medieval Book, pp. 72, 74-75, no. 76, pl. of f. 60r.
Barbara A. Shailor